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汉英翻译方法指导

分类:英语学习 阅读:

 

一、短文汉译英要点分析

  1.翻译中常见的一些问题

  考生对翻译实质理解不清,缺乏对短文的整体把握,因而译文思路不清,连贯性较差。

  短文翻译不同于孤立的、没有上下文的单句翻译。考生在动手做题之前首先应当通读并理解全文,并对文章的内容和风格有一个完整的和全面的认识,这也是保证译文行文连贯、内容忠实所不可缺少的准备工作。然而,许多考生却不这样做,他们往往拿起文章就往下翻译,看一句译一句,这样做,表面上是为了确保译文忠实,但实际情况是,考生只顾每个句子字面的和孤立的意思,而忽略了上下文之间的内在逻辑,忽视了句子之间的衔接,因而译文连贯性较差,无法把原文表达清楚。试看下面的例子: 原文:9月10日是教师节。教师在人们的心目中究竟是什么样子呢?清华附中的小记者走出校门,采访了76位路人。采访发现,83%的人认为老师肩负着培养下一代的重任,是提高全民族文化素质的决定因素,值得尊敬。

  译文1:Sept.10 is Teachers Day. What is the image of teachers in people's heart? Little reporters from the middle school attached to Qinghua University walked out of their school gate and interviewed 76 passersby. The interview shows that 83% people think that teachers shoulder the important task of educating the next generation, they are the decisive factor of improving the whole people's cultural level, and they are worth of being respected.

  译文2:Whats the teacher's image? On Teacher's Day,Sept.10,a group of teenage reporters from the secondary school of Qinghua University took a poll on the street on seventy six passersby. Eighty six of those surveyed said that teachers should be held in high esteem because they are committed to the shaping of the younger generation, an undertaking crucial to achieving a higher level of education in China.

  比较上面的译文,可以看出,译文1显得呆板、生硬,而译文2比较通顺、流畅。译文1显然忽略了文章的逻辑关系,只是一味地按照原文的行文顺序和字面意思,逐字逐句地翻译,而译文2没有拘泥于原文的词汇和句式,不是孤立地看一句译一句,而是在通观全局、仔细推敲上下文和文章内容的基础上,抓住了文章重心和主旨(即教师在人们心目中的形象),"What is the teacher's image"一句放到句首,既符合英文表达习惯,又突出了主题,使主要内容一目了然。另外,从上下文看,译文1照字面意思把"小记者"译为"little reporters",似乎不如译文2的"teenage reporters"确切。译文2把"采访"分别灵活地译成"poll"和"survey"也显得很恰当。译文1把"走出校门"译成"walked out of their school gate",而译文2只译为"took a poll on the street",既然是采访街头的人当然要在校外进行,这是不言而喻的,因此这样译比较简练。但译文2把"清华附中"译为"the secondary school of Qinghua University"不妥,还是译文1的译法准确。

  2.译文结构松散,中心层次不清,可读性差,不符合英语的表达习惯

  好的译文不仅要在内容上忠实于原文,而且还应该考虑英语读者的需要,符合英语的表达习惯,具有与原文相应的或较好的条理性和连贯性。这一点恰恰是一般考生不太注意的。很多考生以为只要字面上意思接近就行了,但真正忠实的译文是在不改变原文意思的基础上使行文流畅,具有可读性。如果译文可读性太差,便谈不上忠实于原文。试看一下这两段译文:

  原文:1953年,英美两国计划对中国援朝部队使用原子弹,并准备用核武器进攻中国。当这个消息由第三国外交官转告北京时,新中国的领导人深感忧虑,立即作出了建立和发展原子弹和导弹事业的决定。

  译文1:In 1953,America and England planned to use atomic bombs against Chinese aiding troops in Korea and to attack China with nuclear weapons. When the news was transferred to Beijing from diplomatic sources of a third country, the leaders of new China felt deeply worried and immediately decided to set up and develop atomic bomb and missile cause.

  译文2:In 1953,when they learned from diplomatic sources of a third country that the United States and Britain were prepared to attack mainland China and the Chinese troops in Korea with nuclear weapons, the leaders of new China, deeply concerned, decided that China must have its own atomic bombs and missiles.

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